A week ago, 2/5 GR (FF)— the Second Battalion of the Fifth ‘Gorkha Rifles, frontier Force popularly known as the VC paltan Celebrated its 125th anniversary. The famous battalion is called VC paltan because of the three Victoria Crosses awarded to its personnel by the British during the Second World War in the Burma campaign. This is an unparalleled feat in the annals of military history as no other battalion in any array has won the nation’s highest gallantry award three times.
2/5 GR (FT) was raised at Abbottabad in 1886 and was employed to maintain order in the restive North-west Frontier Province by the British It earned laurels in Mesopotamia and at Gallipoli in the First World War and won the Victoria Cross in Burma three times in the Second World War Later the battalion saw action not only in all the post-independence wars fought by India, but also served in the UN mission in the Congo. The celebrations at Almora were attended by Lt Gen Vijay Ahluwalia, GOC-in-C, Central Command, and a large number of Gorkha veterans.
With the spine-chilling war cry `JaiMahakali, Ayo Gorkhali’ (Victory to Goddess Mahakali, the Gorkhas are coming’), the Gorkhas have served first the British Indian Army and then the Indian Army with distinction for almost two centuries. Over 200,000 of them participated in the two World Wars; of these 43,000 sacrificed their lives. Hailing mostly from villages of impoverished hill farmers in the Gorkha district of Nepal, the Gorkhas belong to four main ethnic groups: the Gurungs and Magars from central Nepal and the Rais and Limbus from the east.
The British had identified the Gorkhas as a ‘martial race’ for their sterling qualities of toughness and fortitude. The Gorkha soldier is famous the world over for his ferocity and unflinching courage in battle. One author has described the Cork-has as “small of stature, large of heart, accustomed to hardship, good-natured with a keen sense of humour loyal to death, more disciplined than any fighting force in the world, brave and capable and absolutely without fear” These hardy troops are undoubtedly tough, bold and durable under withering fire, and they are extremely well-disciplined. Close family ties within each battalion ensure that they fight not only for the paltan’s izzat but also for their own kith and kin. ‘Kafir hunu bhanda marnu jati’ (better to die than be a coward) is the motto of the Gorkha soldiers who continue to a serve in the British, Indian and Nepalese armies with pride and professionalism of a very high order.
The Gorkha regiments of the British Indian Army played a key role during both the World Wars. They saw action in Africa, Europe and in Asia and earned battle honours everywhere. Following Partition in 1947, under a tripartite agreement between Britain, India and Nepal, four Gorkha regiments —2nd ,6th ,7th and 10th regiments -were transferred to the British Army eventually becoming the Gorkha Brigade. Of the total of 10 regiments, six (1st ,3rd, 4th , 5th , 8th and 9th regiments) joined the Indian Army 11 GR was raised later. Currently there are 39 battalions serving in seven Gurkha regiments in the Indian Army. While Gorkhas in the Indian Army hail both from Nepal and India’s hill regions, the Nepalese Gorkha has have helped to build strong bonds of friendship between the two armies.
Though all the Gorkha regiments have performed creditably in India’s wars since independence, the 5th Gorkha Rifles has a legendary record. The 5/5 GR (FF) fought gallantly in the Hyderabad Police Action in 1948. In this action, Naik Nar Bahadur Thapa was awarded the first Ashok Chakra Class I of independent India on September 15, 1948. The 4/5 GR (FF) earned the distinction of becoming the first battalion of the Indian Army to participate in a heliborne attack in the Battle of Sylhet during the 1971 war for the liberation of Bangladesh. Besides the major wars, the Gorkhas have served in Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, at the Siachen Glacier and in the UN peacekeeping missions in Lebanon and Sierra Leone . In October 2011, the 4/9 GR won the gold medal in the annual Cambrian Patrol Competition held in Wales, UK.
The Gorkhas still carry into battle their traditional weapon an 18-inch long wickedly curved, broad-bladed heavy knife known as the khukri. It is the world’s most renowned fighting knife. It’s said: “Often the mere sight of an unsheathed khukri is enough to discourage any further action by causing a cold, cramped feeling in the nether regions of the stomach.” Legend has it that once a khulth was drawn in battle, it had to ‘taste blood’. If it did not, its owner had to cut himself before returning it to its sheath.
The author is director, Centre for Land Warfare Studies, New Delhi